Monday, May 25, 2020
LIZARDO VERSUS DENNY INC. NDI of Affiliation LIZARDO VERSUS DENNY INC. NDI In handling the situation, the security guards and the DennyÃ¢â¬â¢s management should have calmly sorted out the issue, therefore avoiding the extremism they found themselves in. In a country having high racism records, the affected races were bound to be paranoid and treatments from the major races that seemed unfavorable were construed to be discrimination. Having this at the back of their minds, it would have been therefore proper that the when Chiu complained of the long wait and introducing the element of discrimination, to be explained to that there were others on the waiting list long before them. A customerÃ¢â¬â¢s complaint should have been addressed soberly and not with annoyance of Ms. Kirts and the subsequent ejection of Lizardo, the second complainant to their services. The security guards reaction and the shoving of the two plaintiffsÃ¢â¬â¢ was a clear indication that Mr. Adam had personalized the whole issue which should not have been the case. The security guard should not even have involved himself in the word exchange as this aggravated the tension and led to the physical fights. We will write a custom essay sample on Lizardo vs Denny Inc. NDI or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now He should have however restrained himself from anything that would suggest to the paranoid plaintiffs that they were being discriminated against. The manager on the other hand also seemed to have personalized the issue and the African American complaint of the security guard is taken as an offence leading to the profane respond that made them be ejected too out of the restaurant. She however would have ignored their talk or rather promise to deal with it instead of complicating the matter further. 2 The security guardsÃ¢â¬â¢ daytime occupation influenced the decision of the case on account that the guards were sober at the time of the incident and hence not intoxicated. It therefore follows that the steps they took at the parking lot were within their scope of profession and in line with their duty to avoid disruption of public peace in this case, by the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s who from the facts had patronized one of the bars before coming to the restaurant. It is worth noting that as the guards of the restaurant, they were therefore expected to perform their duties accordingly and get assistance where required. 3 A claim of discrimination requires the party claiming discrimination to show that the major group had received a preferential treatment or the minority group had been victims of an outright hostility in comparison to the treatment given to the major group (Schiek & Bell, 2007). At all material times the two groups should have been similar in significant respects but the major group should have been treated with preference to the minor group or should have receive hostility which the major group was treated in a better respect. There is also need to establish that the group being discriminated upon was engaged in an activity protected under the anti-discrimination statutes in this case, the U. S Code of 1981 against discrimination. The discriminating party should be aware of the minority partyÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the protected activity and as such still took an adverse action against the minority. There should also be a nexus between the protected activity and the adverse action taken by the discriminating party (Fredman, 2011). The court Ã¢â¬Ës decision is justified on the ground that the plaintiffs in this case could not sufficiently prove the above so as to convince the court that the action of the Denny Inc. amounted to a discrimination based on their racial affiliation. In the restaurant there were other minorities who were served and were seated. It is also worth noting that there were other people in the in the list who were waiting to seat and besides that there was an action being done to see them get a place for the six of them. A comparison to the few patrons who had been seated before them was not sufficient to warrant a claim of discrimination their part. This is because these patrons were there before them. Considering that the plaintiffs could not give evidence of any patron who was given preferential treatment, there claim could therefore not stand. The ejection of the plaintiff was not sufficient to warrant discrimination but was a mere lack of manners on the part of the defendants. 4 The court of appeal decision is based on a review of the district court. The decision is reached after examining the entire record and determining whether there was proof an intentional discrimination by the defendant to the plaintiff based on the facts given. The court of appeal therefore examined all the relevant facts of the plaintiff and the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s case before reaching their decision. This will therefore form a good precedent as the court was detailed in explaining what amounted to or did not amount to discrimination and on what circumstances would a situation be described as discriminatory. In subsequent cases of similar issues the courts will hence have a lesser task in determining discrimination of lack of it. It therefore follows that discrimination would be established where the group claiming discrimination proves that the other party was given preferential treatment in an event that both of them were at similar in significant respects. It is also important to show that the discriminating party intentionally engaged in an activity that was adverse to the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s protected right to non-discrimination. Any action besides this will not amount to discrimination but a mere lack of civility. References Fredman, S. (2011). Discrimination law. Oxford [etc. : Oxford University Press. Schiek, D., & Bell, M. (2007). Cases, materials and text on national, supranational and international non-discrimination law. Oxford [u. a.: Hart.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Anton Chekhov is known for brilliant, full-length plays, yet in his younger years he fancied writing short, one-act comedies like The Marriage Proposal. Filled with wit, irony, and brilliantly developed and impassioned characters, this three-person play shows the young playwright at his best. The Comedies of Anton Chekhov Anton Chekhovs full-length masterpieces may be considered comedies, yet they are filled with dour moments, failed loves, and sometimes even death. This is especially true in his play The Seagull -- a comedic drama which ends with a suicide. Although other plays such as Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard do not culminate in such an explosive resolution, a feeling of hopelessness permeates each of Chekhovs plays. This is a sharp contrast to some of his more jovial one-act comedies. The Marriage Proposal, for example, is a delightful farce that could have ended very darkly, but the playwright instead maintains its energetic whimsy, concluding in a successful albeit combative engagement. The Characters of A Marriage Proposal The main character, Ivan Vassilevitch Lomov, is a heavy-set man in his mid-thirties, prone to anxiety, stubbornness, and hypochondria. These flaws are further amplified because he becomes a nervous wreck when he tries to propose marriage. Stepan Stephanovitch Chubukov owns land next to Ivan. A man in his early seventies, he gladly grants permission to Ivan, but soon calls off the engagement when an argument over property ensues. His chief concerns are maintaining his wealth and keeping his daughter happy. Natalya Stepanovna is the female lead in this three-person play. She can be jovial and welcoming, yet stubborn, proud and possessive, just like her male counterparts. Plot Summary of A Marriage Proposal The play is set in theÃ rural countryside of Russia during the late 1800s. When Ivan arrives at the home of the Chubukov family, the elderly Stepan assumes that the well-dressed young man has come to borrow money. Instead, Stepan is pleased when Ivan asks for his daughters hand in marriage. Stepan whole-heartedly bestows his blessing, declaring that he already loves him like a son. The old man then leaves to fetch his daughter, assuring the younger man that Natalya will graciously accept the proposal. While alone, Ivan delivers a soliloquy, explaining his high level of nervousness, as well as a number of physical ailments that have recently plagued his daily life. This monologue sets up everything that unfolds next. Everything is going well when Natalya first enters the room. They chat pleasantly about the weather and agriculture. Ivan attempts to bring up the subject of marriage by first stating how he has known her family since childhood. As he touches upon his past, he mentions his familys ownership of the Oxen Meadows. Natalya stops the conversation to clarify. She believes that her family has always owned the meadows, and this disagreement ignites a caustic debate, one that sends tempers flaring and Ivans heart palpitating. After they yell at each other, Ivan feels dizzy and tries to calm himself down and change the subject back to matrimony, only to get immersed in the argument yet again. Natalyas father joins the battle, siding with his daughter, and angrily demanding that Ivan leave at once. As soon as Ivan is gone, Stepan reveals that the young man has planned to propose to Natalya. Shocked and apparently desperate to be married, Natalya insists that her father bring him back. Once Ivan has returned, she tries to bend the subject toward romance. However, instead of discussing marriage, they begin to argue over which of their dogs is the better hound. This seemingly innocuous topic launches into yet another heated argument. Finally, Ivans heart cannot take it anymore and he flops down dead. At least thats what Stepan and Natalya believe for a moment. Fortunately, Ivan breaks out of his fainting spell and regains his senses enough for him to propose to Natalya. She accepts, but before the curtain falls, they return to their old argument regarding who owns the better dog. In short, The Marriage Proposal is a delightful gem of a comedy. It makes one wonder why so much of Chekhovs full-length plays (even the ones labeled as comedies) seem so thematically heavy. The Silly and the Serious Sides of Chekhov So, why is The Marriage Proposal so whimsical whereas his full-length plays are realistic? One reason that may account for the silliness found in this one-act is that The Marriage Proposal was first performed in 1890Ã when Chekhov was just entering his thirties and still in relatively good health. When he wrote his famous comedy-dramas his illness (tuberculosis) had more severely affected him. Being a physician, Chekhov must have known that he was nearing the end of his life, thereby casting a shade over The Seagull and the other plays. Also, during his more prolific years as a playwright, Anton Chekhov traveled more and beheld many impoverished, marginalized people of Russia, including inmates of a penal colony. The Marriage Proposal is a humorous microcosm of marital unions among the Russian upper class in late 19th century Russia.Ã This was Chekhovs world during his late 20s. As he became more worldly, his interests in others outside the middle classes increased. Plays such as Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard feature an ensemble of characters from many different economic classes, from the wealthiest to the most impoverished. Finally, one must consider the influence of Constantin Stanislavski, a theater director who would become one of the most important figures in modern theater. His dedication to bringing a naturalistic quality to drama may have further inspired Chekhov to write less silly plays, much to the chagrin of theater-goers who like their comedies broad, loud, and full of slapstick.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Flood in the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Flood of Genesis The Biblical book, Genesis, of the Old Testament contains an account of an historic Flood which has never been equaled in intensity. Tablet 11of the Sumero-Babylonian version of the epic of Gilgamesh also records a Flood quite expansive and quite devastating. Are they a record of the same event? E.A. Budge states in Babylonian Story of the Deluge and the Epic of Gilgamesh that the narration of the Flood in Sumero-Babylonian records may simply be related to a local flood instead of a worldwide Flood such as the Bible narrates: It is not too much to assume that the original event commemorated in the Legend of the Deluge was a serious and prolongedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to Berossus, the deluge hero was the tenth Prediluvian king in Babylonia. Also in the Sumerian inscription he is referred to as king; there he occupies also a priestly office, viz., that of the administrator of the temple provisions of a certain god. In the Gilgamesh epic, Utnapishtim is not invested with any royal power or entrusted with any priestly office; from it we learn simply that he was a citizen of Shurippak (Tablet XI:23) and a man of considerable wealth (XI:70ff). (227) There is no reason given by Utnapishtim for the deluge. On the contrary, the Judaic version of the Flood in Genesis states in 6:5-8 a very clear, explicit reason for the Flood: The Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that very imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart. So the Lord said, Ã¢â¬Å"I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the ground, man and beast and creeping things and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them.Ã¢â¬ Likewise in Genesis 11:13 God gives a reason for the Flood: And God said to Noah, Ã¢â¬Å"I have determined to make an end of all flesh; for the earth is filled with violence through them; behold, I will destroy them with the earth. In Column 2 of Tablet 11 the Sumero-Babylonian Flood narrative continues with the measurements andShow MoreRelated Biblical Flood Myth of Genesis and the Flood Myth of the Epic of Gilgamesh573 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Flood of the Bible and the Flood of Gilgamesh Ã Ã Ã Ã The story of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark, as told in the old testament, tells how God punished the world because it had become corrupt. God accomplished this by flooding the world, and annihilating all the creatures upon it, except for Noah and his family and a pair of each type of creature on the earth. Each decade, more insight is gained into the origin of the flood story. Based on the information available at the present time, one could argue that theRead More Comparing the Epic of Gilgamesh Flood Myth and Book of Genesis Biblical Flood Myth1792 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe Gilgamesh and Genesis Floods Ã Ã Ã Ã The rendition of the historic, worldwide Flood recorded in Genesis of the Old Testament is similar to the account recorded on Tablet 11of the Sumero-Babylonian version of the epic of Gilgamesh, discovered in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s by British archaeologists in Assyria. Let us compare the two in this essay. Ã Alexander Heidel in his book, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels, provides a background for the survivor of the Sumero-Babylonian Flood, Utnapishtim:Read More The Biblical Flood of Genesis Based Upon the Flood of the Epic of Gilgamesh1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBiblicalÃ Flood Based Upon the Flood of Gilgamesh Ã Ã Ã Ã In the middle of the nineteenth century, archaeologists unearthed twelve clay tablets. Around the turn of the twentieth century, archaeologists finally managed to decipher the tablets written in Akkadian, the language of ancient royalty and diplomacy. The tablets tell of the story of Gilgamesh. (1) The eleventh tablet tells that Gilgamesh, in his quest for immortality set out on a long journey to look for his ancestor, UtnapishtimRead MoreThe Epic Of Gilgamesh And The Biblical Narrative Of The Genesis1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvariation among symbolism and moral values, however collective literary essentials exist. For instance, an abundance of flood stories that expand across the world verifies a connection among the traditions of mankind. The strong resemblance between the flood accounts in the ancient Mesopotamian myth The Epic of Gilgamesh and the biblical narrative of NoahÃ¢â¬â¢s Ark in The Genesis propose a closer relationship that encourages further analysis. The major plot points are echoed in both texts despite differentiationRead MoreGilgamesh vs Bible1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhy the Epic of Gilgamesh compares to the Bible in many different ways and the epic also has an extraordinarily different perspective than the Bible does. Yet the Bible and Gilgamesh, story or truth, myth or religion, these are questions that are applied to the ancient epic of Gilgamesh. Interestingly, these same questions apply to another major? They were written many years ago, both with many different versions, and in different languages work, the Bible. While the Sumerians wrote Gilgamesh as earlyRead MoreBiblical Flood Story Vs. Gilgamesh Flood1981 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBiblical Flood Story versus Gilgamesh Flood Story The Biblical Flood story and the Gilgamesh Flood story include similarities and differences. There are two versions we know of the flood story in Babylonian literature, and both have different heroÃ¢â¬â¢s in each, although the cause of each flood is different. I will prove that I understand the task at hand by reading both of the stories, and taking it apart piece by piece to understand it in a whole. By doing this, I am able to know what I am readingRead MoreThe Purpose of the Biblical Flood narrative1977 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesand early JudaismÃ¢â¬ (Coogen 2008) that contains many forms of writings and stories which address not only myth, main historical events and laws, but also those that follow the Israelites unique relationship with God. The first book of the Old Testament is known as Genesis, which is highly concerned with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s creation and its initial stages. It is also the origin of the biblical Flood Narrative concerning Noah and the Ark. The story is characterised by a man that is instructed to build anRead More Comparing and Contrasting Epic of Gilgamesh and the Bibles Noahs Ark642 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesComparing and Contrasting Epic of Gilgamesh and Noahs Ark Many cultures have stories of a great flood, and probably the best known story is of Noahs Ark. The next most notable is the Sumerian story of Ut-Napishtim found in the Epic of Gilgamesh. In the ancient Babylonian depiction of the flood story, the god Enlil creates a flood to destroy a noisy mankind that is disturbing his sleep. Gilgamesh is told by another god, Ea, to build an ark (Monack 1). The Epic of Gilgamesh has broadly the sameRead MoreKnowledge in Gilgamesh and Genesis Essay1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesboth the people of biblical times as well as those of the epic era. However, their stories have some differences according to cultural variation but the main structure, idea and theme are generally found correlative. It is hard to believe that that one work did not affect the others. The first great heroic epic poem of Gilgamesh and the Old Testament are two cultures that are hundreds of years apart. Upon studying the book of Genesis and the story of Gilgamesh; whereas one is m yth and the other oneRead MoreBiblical Vs. Classical Phenomenon2078 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesBiblical vs. Classical Phenomenon Throughout the semester, we have analyzed various texts that constitute some of the most important publications in the history of humankind. These myths and legends are known as the oldest in centuries and possibly the first sight of written text that humans have encountered. Dating back to the times of traditional oral-based stories, texts such as The Epic of Gilgamesh have given humankind a sense of emergence in the old times of script and literature. The Epic
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Identify opportunities for child health promotion Moules and Ramsay (1998) identify many areas for child health promotion. This includes smoking, exercise, diet and nutrition, sexual health, dental health, skin care and the sun, accidents, alcohol and drug abuse. As with the other branches of nursing, health promotion can take forms of primary, secondary or tertiary intervention. Interventions may depend on the age of the child. Younger children, for example pre school aged children will benefit form health promotion aimed at the parents. Health promotion activities may include: Ã¢â¬ ¢Assessing needs Social support: providing support by creating groups, counselling sessions and creating opportunities for listening and building friendships Ã¢â¬ ¢Providing education through different medians Ã¢â¬ ¢Detection of disorders and health problems via screening programmes Ã¢â¬ ¢Providing practical help :providing access to information and knowledge, for example legal and economic advice Ã¢â¬ ¢Community projects and community development As childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health is determined by a wide range of factors, addressing the wider determinants of health is viewed as been effective health promotion. Whichever method used the childÃ¢â¬â¢s health needs to be viewed holistically, Hall and Elliman (2003). Explore issues of consent: Fraser Guidelines/ Gillick competencies Caulfield (1996) p287, Individuals over eighteen years who have the mental capacity can make their own decisions regarding health care. The Family Law Reform Act also allows young people of the age sixteen to eighteen to also make their own decisions. Consent issues become more complex when dealing with individuals under the age of sixteen. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children NSPCC (2009) state Gillick competency and Fraser guidelines are used to assess whether a child under the age of sixteen is competent and mature enough to make their own decisions and understand the consequences of their decision regarding health care. The guidelines originated after a legal case between Victoria Gillick and her local health authority. Gillick took the authority to court in order to prevent her daughter under the age of 16 being able to receive contraceptive treatment and advice without parental consent. Gillick lost the case. In 1985 Lord Fraser produced guidelines specifically for contraceptive advice and treatment which stated treatment could be given to children under the age of 16 providing the advice was understood. Advice and treatment could be provided if the professional was unable to persuade the child to discuss contraception with their guardians, sexual intercourse would continue without contraception, mental and physical health may become at risk and it was in the young personÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest to receive contraceptive advice. Caulfield (1996) p287, If the child is assessed as being competent they have the right to consent. If the child is viewed as incapable of giving consent, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parental guardians can do this on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf. Conflicts can arise if the opinion of the child and guardian differ. For example, if the child is refusing treatment, parental guardians can override their childÃ¢â¬â¢s decision and consent to treatment. However if the difference of opinion is extreme and the health professional does not know how far the childÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes should be taken into account (For example refusal of life threatening surgery) a court can make the final decision. . Explore the concept of family centred care Mcewing, Kelsey, Richardson and Glasper (2003) p 88 identify childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s nursing to be based on a philosophy of family centred care. This approach of care focuses on the family as a whole instead of solely on the child. The nursing environment should encourage and enable the family to help care for the child. This is believed to benefit both the child and the family emotionally and physically. The family unit is maintained and it allows the parents to help care and learn the correct skills and knowledge to help care for their sick child. They also will therefore not feel they are loosing their role as a parent. However it can be quite difficult for parents in this situation and very upsetting for family members to care for their ill child in this setting. Difficulties sometimes arise when family members have differences in opinions also. Therefore it is ultimately up to the family how involved they want to be in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s care. The nurse and other members of the multi disciplinary team have a role in supporting the family members throughout the care of the child. Demonstrate an awareness of child protection issues Citizens Advice Bureau (2009) state child abuse can take different forms. This may be physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse or neglect. Abuse affects a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health and development. If reports have been made to social services they will investigate further to find out if the child is at risk and take appropriate action to protect the child. Investigations may involve family visits, medical examinations and interviews. The parents are usually informed about the enquiries being made. In more serious cases and all sexual abuse cases the police will be informed before the parents. Children can be removed from the home and placed under police protection. Further action may be required which may involve a police investigation, applying for court orders to place the child in care or under supervision from the local authority in order to provide support for the family. The child may also be placed on the child protection register. Huband (1996) p449 identifies the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act (1989). This act: Ã¢â¬ ¢Highlights the rights of children and identifies parental rights are dependant on parental responsibility Ã¢â¬ ¢Recognises the fact that there will be instances whereby childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights over power parental rights. Compare and contrast communication between children and that of adults Moules and Ramsay (1998), Similar to communicating with adults its important to use non verbal communication to show the nurse is interested and sensitive to the child and to ensure the nurse does not display signs of authority or superiority to the patient. Again as with communicating with adults it is advised to look relaxed, ask open ended questions and avoid medical jargon. Different types of communication need to be adopted when communicating with different age groups. INFANTS: Emphasis on Non verbal communication as this is what the child relies on to express needs and understand surroundings. Allowing the parents to be in sight of the child will help relax the infant especially if the guardians can remain calm. The nurse should talk to the child at their level, similarly to adult nursing. The child should be focussed upon and communicated with using simple sentences and concrete terminology. Encouraging the child to play and express their feelings through play may help decrease the childÃ¢â¬â¢s anxieties. This is a large part of communication in child nursing. Having the parents present is also important to help reduce any fears and encourage comfort in an unfamiliar setting. Are often interested in what is happening around their environment. Allowing the child to question the hospital, treatments and health care improves communication. Questions should be encouraged in both adult and child nursing. Ã It is important to give the adolescent opportunity to discuss their care alone to provide privacy. The adolescent should be treated autonomous, this will also encourage communication. It is important to be non judgemental as this again will encourage the adolescent to discuss thoughts and feelings more openly. There are both similarities and differences in communication between adults and children. These skills need to be developed in order to communicate effectively with patients of different age groups. Consider the role of other agencies and professional groups e. g. social services, sure start Ã¢â¬Å"Sure Start is the GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s programme to deliver the best start in life for every child by bringing together early education, childcare, health and family supportÃ¢â¬ Sure Start (2010) Sure Start implements initiatives via outreach programmes and community development to help improve child care, early education, health and family support. The aim is to help reduce poverty. Sure Start deals with children up to the age of fourteen or sixteen if the child has a disability, Sure Start (2010). Social Services have a role to help provide family support services for children if requested alongside protecting children from harm when concerns are raised. Social services are involved in protecting children in care or when placed up for adoption. In order to be successful effective inter agency communication and team work is needed. This may involve health services, education services, social services and police.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
The Civil War The Civil War was the most convulsive and significant war in American history. After the Constitution was adopted by all of the States in 1789, uniting the States into one nation, differences between the States had been worked out through compromises. By 1861 these differences between the Northern States, which included the Western States, and the Southern States had become so great that compromise would no longer work. Therefore, a conflict started within our nation that was called the Civil War. Although causes of the Civil War have long time been debated by historians, there are many reasons that are agreed on. For more than thirty years arguments between the North and South had been growing. One of these controversies was about taxes paid on goods brought into this country from foreign countries. This kind of tax is called a tariff. In 1828 Northerners helped get the Tariff Act passed. It raised the prices of manufactured products from Europe, which were sold mainly in the South. The purpose of the law was to encourage the South to buy the North's products. It angered the Southern people to have to pay more for the goods they wanted from Europe or pay more to get goods from the North. Either way the Southern people were forced to pay more because of the efforts of Northern businessmen. Though most of tariff laws had been changed by the time of the Civil War, the Southern people still remembered how they were treated by the Northern people. In the years before the Civil War the political power in the Federal Government, centered in Washington D.C., was changing. The Northern and Mid-Western States were becoming more powerful as the populations increased. The Southern States were losing political power. Just as the original thirteen colonies fought for their independence, the Southern States felt a growing need for freedom from the central Federal authority in Washington D.C. They felt that each State should make its own laws. This issue was called State's Rights. Some Southern States wanted to break away from the United States of America and govern themselves. (The Civil War Homepage) Probably the most emotional issue of the cause of the Civil War was over the issue of slavery. Farming was the South's main industry and cotton was the primary farm product. Not having the use of machines, it took a great amount of human labor to pick cotton. The people in the South needed more people (slaves) to work the cotton for them that is why large number of slaves were used in the South. Many slaves were also used to provide labor for the various household chores that needed to be done. Many Northerners thought that owning slaves was wrong, for any reason. Thus, the disagreement. Some of those Northerners loudly disagreed with the South's laws and beliefs concerning slavery. Except slavery had been a part of the Southern way of life for well over 200 years and they didnt want to give it up without a fight. The Constitution of the United States guaranteed the right to own property and protected against anyone taking their property. To them a slave was property. The people of t he Southern States did not like the Northern people telling them that owning slaves was a great wrong. A person either believes that slavery is right or that slavery is wrong, so how can two people arguing over this issue come to a compromise? (The American Civil War). Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860. He vowed that he would keep the country united and the new western territories would be free from slavery. Many Southerners were afraid that he would not sympathetic to their way of life and would not treat them fairly. South Carolina was the first State to separate from the United States soon after the election of Abraham Lincoln. Six other Southern States quickly followed and also left. These States joined together and formed a new nation, which they named the Confederate States of America. They elected Jefferson Davis as their first president. On April 12, 1861 the Confederate States of America attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, which was held
Monday, March 9, 2020
Global Warming and Carbon Introduction Global warming is believed to be as a result of excess carbon in the atmosphere. Scientists have predicted climate change. This essay analyzes and evaluates an article Ã¢â¬Å"The Global Warming MythÃ¢â¬ by David Bellamy. Bellamy, who is a professor, is a founder of Tree Appeal and a well known botanist and environmental campaigner, as Salter (2009, p. 1) reveals.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming and Carbon specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The British environmentalist claims that the global warming allegations by scientist are manmade and that there is no imminent danger that carbon will cause an end to the present world. He maintains that predictions based on generated computer models cannot be relied on since the presence of carbon in the atmosphere cannot cause a catastrophe. This essay analyzes and evaluates these claims by showing assertions that carbon may not be responsible for glo bal warming as claimed by many scientists. Analysis Bellamy (2007, p. 1) argues that global warming is as a result of carbon and is not a threat. The changes in climate that have occurred are not sufficient to make the assertions that the world is in danger. The climatic change that has occurred does not give transformed details of whether that could indicate an approaching catastrophe. The challenge is that the climate change supporters have gone to extents of politicizing the issue and causing panic in the society. Their predictions are generated in a computer model which has been designed by man. He appreciates the scientists for conducting research in the disputed area and notes that their research has contributed to science. The prediction dwell on the model yet accurate results of weather forecast can predict two weeks. To support his argument, Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that global temperatures have displayed climatic trends in the past century that pronounce catastrophe. The highest temperatures were recorded in 1940 and 1980 whereas the lowest temperatures were recorded in 1910 and 1970.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Following changes in 1980, scientists announced that global warming was approaching. The computer models they used are seen as unreliable by the professor. The recorded changes in temperature are not sufficient to declare danger in the changes in weather. The ice age began to fade away 20,000 years ago when the sea level was increased and has since stopped. For global warming to be considered a threat, the cycle of change takes many years. It is thereof inaccurate to use data collected within 60 years and claim that climate change will cause a catastrophe. Airhart (2010, p. 1) states that, vast amount of data that cover tens of thousands of years is required to make a judgment. The content of Carbon dioxide in the at mosphere is constantly increasing. The climate changes have varied in a cyclic manner from time to time. Many scholars have ignored that carbon dioxide has an advantage in plants growth. Scientists propose a long period to be considered when considering climate change. Bellamy (2007, p. 1) notes that the climate has been recorded to be on decline in the past 10 years. Hence, the weather could have begun another cycle of change to global cooling. The scientists scare the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population by spreading the word of doom. Bellamy (2007, p. 1) insists that wild animals have increased in the past decades. Governments funding on the spread of the looming catastrophe is enormous. The variability of the climate change is challenging, only half is predictable. Consequently, the prediction is inaccurate. Predictions accuracy is applicable for less than two weeks, besides the weather being unpredictable in nature. Bellamy (2007, p. 1), who is an environmentalist, encourage people to par ticipate in sustainable programs that promote natural environment. Indigenous plans and animals are important to the climate. The changes in the weather are real.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Global Warming and Carbon specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The presence of carbon dioxide is not a danger to the population but may be useful for plants. Carbon dioxide is not capable of causing an end to the world. Evaluation The climatic changes happening are likely to be a normal process that the earth undergoes from time to time. The global warming needs to be reversed to avoid the possibility of a catastrophe. This will be possible if indigenous trees and animals are safeguarded so that they do not become extinct. The earth has been cooling since 1998 and thus, the global warming may be reversing as Airhart (2010, p. 1) indicate in support of the article. The increased amounts of Carbon dioxide alone are not sufficient to cause a global warming. The models used in determining the future in climate are deficient. They fail to be realistic because predicting future weather is challenging when one considers the complexity of nature and patterns of weather. There is no scientific explanation on carbon as having the capacity to cause a global catastrophe. Changes in weather that have occurred have been explained as natural phenomena. Scientists have failed to form a consensus on the natural explanation of the global warming. There may be other explanations of global warming other than the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. May be the global warming is as a result of land use like the urban heat that is absorbed by buildings and roads in developed land. There could also be a possibility that the weather stations collect measurements affected by the urban development. History of weather shows that the global temperatures increase first then the carbon levels are raised. The carbon levels increased after g lobal warming and may not have a negative effect (Salter 2009, p, 10.Advertising Looking for essay on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Bedard (2009, p. 1) argues that carbon dioxide is harmless and has benefits. More carbon dioxide is required to support the existing plants. Global warming may have originated from solar activities. Slowing down carbon dioxide will affect the growth of plants, since plants require carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is not harmful to human beings, the efforts on reducing carbon dioxide are unnecessary. Global Wraming.com (2011, p. 1) differs with Bellamy (2007, p. 1) view of global warming effects and states that the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s air and water are becoming warm, which may result in a catastrophe. The article fails to see the effects of the global warming like the shortage of water as indicated by Natural Resources Defense Council (2001, p. 1). Climate threats like drought expose people to the danger of starvation; hence the nations should conserve the plants and animals to reverse the effects of global warming. Statistics shows that carbon emissions are on the increase in the present w orld than before. The professor fails to acknowledge the increase of emissions has been on the increase than before. Barett (2009, p. 1) notes that the states have entered into international agreements which have discussed various ways of reducing the carbon emission. Measures to reduce the carbon emissions are taken because the effects of global warming have been realized. The effects of global warming have been realized across the globe. Carey (2011, p.1) argues that the extreme weather changes are as a result of global warming effects. The emission of greenhouse gases has been increased by human activities. Massive rainstorms, extended droughts and frequent floods are examples of extreme weather conditions that have not been realized before. Researchers are in harmony that the possible cause of the adverse weather changes have been contributed by human activities. Mandia (2011, p. 1) states that, the climatic conditions that are witnessed today are beyond the regular climatic con ditions. The adverse weather conditions are likely to cause major disruptions in the social life of human beings and the existence of the entire ecosystem. There is great variability of climate than in other times. Researchers base their studies on the effects of global warming with an aim of finding out the accuracy of the claim that the earth is endangered. Scientists argue that it may be necessary to distinguish changes in temperature in a certain region with that of the entire globe (RealClimate 2011, p.1). Conclusion The article mentions that there is global warming and denies that carbon is harmful and will cause a catastrophe. The essay has shown that carbon is harmless and the global changes are as a result of natural changes in weather. It is therefore inaccurate to claim that the weather can be predicted with the computer models and ignore that the weather is unpredictable. The essay has also noted that extreme weather changes have occurred and may have been contributed by the increased emission of carbon from human activities. References Airhart, M., 2010. Climate myths: Jackson school set the record straight. Available at utexas.edu/know/2010/11/08/climate_myths/ Barett, S., 2009. Rethinking Global Climate Change Governance. Economics, 3, 5. Available at economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2009- 5 Bedard, P., 2009. Scientist: Carbon Dioxide DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Cause Global War. Available at usnews.com/news/blogs/washington-whispers/2009/10/07/scientist- carbon-dioxide-doesnt-cause-global-warming Bellamy, D., 2007. The Global Warming Myth. Available at http://nzclimatescience.net/index.php?option=com_contenttask=viewid=58I temid=1 Carey, J., 2011.Global warming and the Science of extreme Weather. Available at scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=global-warming-and-the- science-of-extreme-weather Global Wraming.com., 2011. What is global warming. Available at http://globalwarming.com/2009/03/what-is-global-warming/ Mandia, S. A., 2011 . Global warming man or myth. Available at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/global_warming/global_warming_scientifi c_consensus.html Natural Resources Defense Council., 2011. Global warming. Available at nrdc.org/globalwarming/ RealClimate., 2011. Myth vs. Fact regarding the Ã¢â¬Å"Hockey stickÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬ËAvailable at realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2004/12/myths-vs-fact-regarding- the-hockey-stick/ Salter, J., 2009. Eco hero: David Bellamy. The telegraph. Available at telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/climatechange/6598056/Eco- hero-David-Bellamy-botanist-and-campaigner.htm
Friday, February 21, 2020
Design of one Operation Unit - Essay Example The technology currently accounts for more than 20% of air separations. In cryogenic distillation applied in this design, air is liquefied, and then fractionally distilled, separating the air into its constituents primarily nitrogen, oxygen and argon. This is a complex process that is the most common and efficient method of large scale oxygen production. It is also the most efficient method of storing oxygen. Liquid oxygen storage is six to eight times more efficient than high pressure cylinders. The complexities and cool down requirements highly favour continuously operating production plants; this is not usually the mode of operation for field medical facilities. Liquid oxygen can be stored, but there is a loss rate that is dependent on the size of the container, the amount of liquid oxygen in the container, and the ambient temperature. Liquid oxygen cannot be stored for long term use. It is a simple matter to safely fill high pressure oxygen cylinders using liquid oxygen. Cryogeni c air separation is currently the most efficient and cost-effective technology for producing large quantities of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon as gaseous or liquid products. An air separation unit using a conventional, multi-column cryogenic distillation process produces oxygen from compressed air at high recoveries and purities. Cryogenic technology can also produce high-purity nitrogen as a useful by product stream at relatively low incremental cost. In addition, liquid argon, liquid oxygen, and liquid nitrogen can be added to the product slate for stored product backup or byproduct sales at low incremental capital and power costs. Capacity and product specification The designed system comprises of 3 columns with a length of 1 meter each. Its ID is 3cm. The system is equipped with an automated control system for regulation of each cycleÃ¢â¬â¢s time to monitor and record rate of flow, system pressure, and temperatures of the columns. The designed system can be applied to an extensi ve range of absorbents and pressures in facilitating the adsorption process. The targeted optimal rate of flow of oxygen to be produce by the system is 80 lit/min. design specifications are illustrated in the tables below, Capacity table: Theoretical Model Fix layer and dynamic regime adsorption is often characterized by continuous fluid flow phase going via an adsorbent layer within a time variable process (Nexant Inc., 2010). This is theoretically represented in the diagram below: At the process start, free adsorbent layer volume is considered as filled up with a given component A which cannot be absorbed and further, the solid is Ã¢â¬Å"cleanÃ¢â¬ , and does not have any absorbing component B. Other assumptions made are that the gas is ideal; the absorbent layer has constant temperature, the section has constant speed, and that there is an insignificant pressure drop in the layer. This process is represented in a mathematical model which incorporates multiple equations referring to adsorbed component in volume element of height, fluid phase, and solid and the balance equation. These equations are illustrated hereafter, Product stands for mass transfer coefficient per absorbent layerÃ¢â¬â¢s unit volume. The first two equations can be simplified using a modified time variable as follows, The equations can be solved simoultaneously with knowledge of limit conditions: At the start, adsorbed component concentration is zero at any point in the adsorption